Microphone - electric device that transforms sound vibrations in to electricity signal.
Dynamic microphone - the most common type of microphone. It is a membrane connected to the light and thin conductor which is placed in a strong magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet. When the conductor crosses the magnetic field lines, its born in it the driving force of induction induction (EMF). Induced emf is proportional to the amplitude of the oscillation of the membrane and the oscillation frequency.
Ribbon microphones - in dynamic microphone instead of a belt-type coil in a magnetic field is a corrugated strip of aluminum foil. This microphone is used mainly in recording studios.
Condenser microphone is based on the capacitor, one plate of which is made of an elastic material (usually - the polymer film is coated with metallization). These microphones have a very uniform frequency response and provide high-quality audio capture, and therefore widely used in recording studios, radio and television.